Putting renewable technologies to use is allowing the world to rapidly shift to a low-carbon energy system at an increasingly affordable cost, with an array of solutions to meet the complex demands of end users.

Renewable Generation

The rapid emergence of increasingly cost-effective renewable energy is allowing countries across the globe to switch away from carbon-emitting sources at pace. IRENA’s data gathering and analysis of all the major renewables enables it to guide and advise its member countries on their conversion to low-carbon status.

  • Bioenergy

    Bioenergy & biofuels

    The sustainable supply of energy from biomass includes technologies for heat and power, and its transformation into upgraded energy carriers (e.g. advanced biofuels).
  • Geothermal

    Geothermal energy

    Geothermal energy technologies for power generation and heat offer significant potential in a sustainable energy system.
  • Hydropower technology


    By far the largest renewable source today, hydroelectric technologies are longstanding enablers of the generation, management and storage of power.
  • ocean energy


    Ocean energy technologies and their application can support the achievement of a blue economy and SDG14 (conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources).
  • Solar energy

    Solar energy

    Solar energy Solar technologies offer vast potential in their application for the provision of power, heating and cooling, both on-grid and off-grid.
  • Wind

    Wind energy

    Onshore and offshore wind technologies use turbine technology to harness the energy of the wind for the provision of power.

End use sectors

The competitiveness of technologies available to decarbonise the major energy-using sectors is continually improving. IRENA applies its research and analysis of the best-performing solutions to develop viable options tailored to its member countries’ circumstances.

  • Building Cities

    Buildings & cities

    Renewable energy technologies and fuels can help cities achieve their carbon reduction targets while lowering energy costs for residents and improving quality of life.
  • Industry


    Reaching net zero emissions across industrial sectors of iron and steel, cement, chemicals and petrochemicals, and aluminium will require radical shifts in how materials are produced, consumed and disposed of.
  • Transport


    The transport sector is responsible for close to a quarter of global energy-related CO2 emissions due to its heavy reliance on fossil fuels. It is crucial to advance towards a zero-carbon transport with renewables providing a large share of solutions.

Enabling technologies

The transition to a sustainable energy system brings a combination of new opportunities and challenges. A range of enabling technologies is available to help member countries overcome these challenges. IRENA’s ongoing research and analysis of these solutions allow it to advise on the most suitable options.

  • Carbon capture

    Carbon capture

    These technologies capture, transport and store the CO2 from burning fossil fuels before it is released into the atmosphere. They include capture with bioenergy and direct air capture.
  • Critical materials

    Critical materials

    Critical materials are the resources needed to produce key technologies for the energy transition, including wind turbines, solar panels, batteries for EVs and electrolysers. It is crucial to ensure their availability and affordability.
  • Energy Storage

    Energy storage

    Energy storage technologies (e.g. batteries, flywheels, pumped hydro storage) offer notable flexibility potential and value to power systems in transition.
  • Hydrogen


    Green hydrogen technologies, production pathways and products are providing opportunities to decarbonise transport and hard-to-abate sectors, and for sector coupling.
  • Technology & infrastructure

    Renewable energy technology and infrastructure solutions support climate action plans and resilient energy systems, particularly in SIDS and LDCs.