The electrification of transport, buildings and industrial energy demand offers the chance to decarbonise those sectors while integrating a high share of renewables, if managed smartly.


IRENA supports its Member Countries in devising smart electrification strategies, by providing innovation toolboxes that countries use to create a tailored strategy aligned with their national energy transition goals.

Renewable electricity is the backbone of the energy transition. Smart electrification strategies ensure the decarbonisation of end-use sectors using renewable electricity, while it enables power systems to accommodate the new load in a cost-efficient manner, and it increases flexibility in the power system to further integrate larger shares of renewables.

Direct electrification of end-use sectors will take place largely by gradually replacing fossil fuels with renewable electricity, which will increase the flexibility of the power system if managed smartly. Electric vehicles are a major solution in most transport sectors, while in the heating sector, heat pumps are a key technology. In hard-to-abate sectors, such as industry, shipping and aviation, indirect electrification is an important solution. This is where renewable electricity is converted into hydrogen and derivative fuels via electrolysis, to replace the remaining fossil fuels that are hard to replace with electricity.