Renewable energy powered solutions are available now and their cost and performance will continue to improve over time. Full decarbonisation will require a combination of:
electric-fuels derived from renewable hydrogen.
Trams, buses and passenger vehicles powered by renewable electricity need to become the predominant forms of city transport.
In sectors such as aviation, shipping and long-haul road transport, biofuels and electric-fuels derived from renewable hydrogen will play a central role.
Electric vehicles need ‘smart’ charging infrastructure
Smart charging involves adjusting the charging cycle of EVs to take into account the needs of both the power system and car drivers.
Smart charging for electric vehicles is key to delivering both clean transport and low-carbon power supply. It minimises the impact from EVs on power demand and creates the flexibility needed to integrate more solar and wind power into the grids.
Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) charging allows EVs not only to draw electricity from the grid, but also to inject electricity back in, resulting in additional revenues for car owners.
The aviation sector is one of the largest emitters of greenhouse gases in the world, responsible for 2% of global carbon emissions.
Aviation has accounted for around 12% of global fuel consumption for transport.
Already today, many airlines have set voluntary targets to achieve carbon-neutral growth by 2020 and halve emissions by 2050.
Aviation emissions could be reduced by 1.5% annually through improved fuel efficiency, modifications to aircraft and optimised navigational systems.
There is a need to further reduce emissions through the use of advanced biofuels, so called “biojet”.
The technology is feasible, but it requires further commercialisation and improvement in costs.